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Types of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD's) and

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI's)

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD's)-- Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI's)--venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex, and oral sex are quite common, in fact, they are sadly more common than you think.

     These diseases and infections are passed primarily through sexual intercourse. If you are sexually active, you should make getting tested a part of your way of life. Just because you do not have any symptoms does not mean you are okay.

Many STD's/STI's do not have any symptoms, so you have to be really careful if you do not want to catch and/or transmit them.

More than 30 different bacteria, viruses, and parasites can be transmitted through sexual activity.

Bacterial STIs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis.

Viral STIs include genital herpes, HIV/AIDS, and genital warts.

Parasitic STIs include trichomoniasis.
Most STIs are treatable or curable. Of the most common infections, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis are curable, while herpes, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, and HPV are treatable but not curable.
Resistance to certain antibiotics is developing among some organisms such as gonorrhea.

In 2015, about 1.1 billion people had STIs other than HIV/AIDS. About 500 million were infected with either syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia or trichomoniasis. At least an additional 530 million people have genital herpes and 290 million women have human papillomavirus.STIs other than HIV resulted in 108,000 deaths in 2015. In the United States, there were 19 million new cases of sexually transmitted infections in 2010. Historical documentation of STIs date back to at least the Ebers papyrus around 1550 BC and the Old Testament. There is often shame and stigma associated with these infections


   *How To Avoid Getting STD's/STI's: Prevention and Testing*

*Take precautions and/or get tested today*, because while many STD's/STI's can be cured, there is no medicine for regret!

The most effective way to prevent passing or becoming infected with STD's/STI's is to consistently
and correctly use a condom.
 Our protection, and that of our partners, from STD's/STI's, literally lies
in our hands.

Some vaccinations can also reduce your risk of catching certain infections including hepatitis B and some types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Talk to a healthcare provider if you would like to know more.


Below is a list of STD's/STI's and remember -- better to get tested than being sorry!



Chlamydia is a disease caused by the bacteria Chlamydia
trachomatis. It is most commonly sexually transmitted.

Chlamydia is a bacterial infection that you can successfully treat with
antibiotic medicine. Chlamydia is a silent operator - most people who
have chlamydia do not show any symptoms.

Chlamydia can infect the penis, vagina, cervix, anus, urethra, eye, or throat.


*Cytomegalovirus (CMV)*


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae,

in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. Humans and monkeys serve as natural hosts.

There are currently eight species in this genus including the type species,

human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, human herpesvirus 5, HHV-5), which is the species that infects humans.

Diseases associated with HHV-5 include glandular fever and pneumonia.
transmitted through many bodily fluids. It is usually spread during
casual contact, and it can also be transmitted during sex


*Chancroid may have a funny name but it is a serious infection!
 Chancroid is caused by a type of bacteria called Haemophilus ducreyi. 

It is almost always spread through sexual contact.

Uncircumcised men are at much higher risk than circumcised men
for getting chancroid from an infected partner. Most people in the U.S.
who are diagnosed with chancroid have traveled outside the country to
areas where the disease is known to occur more often however

 you can catch it even without penetrative sex.

Common symptoms include sores on the genitals.

*Gonorrhea (‘The Clap’) *

Gonorrhea is caused by the bacteria Neisseria
gonorrhea. Anyone who has any type of sex can catch gonorrhea. The
infection can be spread by contact with the mouth, vagina, penis, or anus.

Gonorrhea is a common bacterial infection that is easily cured with
antibiotic medicine. It is transmitted mostly through sex often it shows
no symptoms.


*Granuloma inguinale (Donovanosis)*

Granuloma inguinale (Donovanosis) is a bacterial disease caused by Klebsiella granulomatis (formerly known as Calymmatobacterium granulomatis)–  is a rare bacterial infection that is spread through oral, vaginal, and anal sex.

Affecting far more men than women, it is hard to diagnose, because the bacteria are hard to detect from a culture or biopsy. Symptoms include beefy, red ulcers on the genitals, and it is often mistaken for Chancroid or LGV characterized by genital ulcers.

It is endemic in many less developed regions.

The disease often goes untreated because of the scarcity of medical treatment in the countries in which it is found. In addition, the painless genital ulcers can be mistaken for syphilis. The ulcers ultimately progress to destruction of internal and external tissue, with extensive leakage of mucus and blood from the highly vascular lesions. The destructive nature of donovanosis also increases the risk of superinfection by other pathogenic microbes.


*Genital Warts (HPV)*

Genital Warts are soft growths on the skin and
mucus membranes of the genitals. They may be found on the penis, vulva,
urethra, vagina, cervix, and around and in the anus. The virus that
causes genital warts is called human papillomavirus (HPV). Not all types
of HPV cause genital warts. Certain types of HPV can lead
to precancerous changes in the cervix, cervical cancer, or anal cancer.
These are called high-risk types of HPV.

HPV, also known as Genital Warts, is a common sexually transmitted virus.

It spreads easily through skin-to-skin contact.

There is no cure but treatment is available for genital warts symptoms.


*Hepatitis (A, B & C)* 

Hepatitis is swelling and inflammation of the liver.

Hepatitis can be caused by infections from viruses (such as hepatitis A, B, or C), bacteria, parasites, or other factors. 

Hepatitis A can be transmitted if you participate in sexual practices that involve oral-anal contact.

Hepatitis B infection can be spread through having contact with the blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and other body fluids of
someone who already has a hepatitis B infection.

Hepatitis C can be spread through having unprotected sexual contact with a person who has
hepatitis C (this risk is much less common than hepatitis B, but the risk is higher for those who have many sex partners, already have a sexually transmitted disease, or are infected with HIV).


Herpes is a very common Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD). 

At least five species of Herpesviridae – HSV-1 and HSV-2 (both of which can cause orolabial herpes and genital herpes),

Varicella-zoster virus (the cause of chickenpox and shingles), Epstein–Barr virus (implicated in several diseases, including mononucleosis and some cancers), and cytomegalovirus – are extremely widespread among humans.

More than 90% of adults have been infected with at least one of these, and a latent form of the virus remains in most people.

There are 9 herpes virus types known to infect humans: herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, HSV-1 and HSV-2, (also known as HHV1 and HHV2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV, which may also be called by its ICTV name, HHV-3), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV or HHV-4), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV or HHV-5), human herpesvirus 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B), human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also known as HHV-8).[7] In total, there are more than 130 herpes viruses

You may become infected with herpes if your skin, vagina, penis, or mouth comes into contact with someone who already has
herpes. You are most likely to get herpes if you touch the skin of someone who has herpes sores, blisters, or a rash.

However, the herpes virus can still be spread even when no sores or other symptoms are present.

It can affect the mouth (oral herpes) or genitals (genital herpes). It is
easily spread. If you have it, you may or may not experience symptoms.


 HIV infection is a condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

HIV can be spread by the following: Through sexual contact – including oral, vaginal, and anal
sex; Through blood – through blood transfusions, accidental needle sticks, or needle-sharing;

From mother to child – a pregnant woman can transmit the virus to her fetus through their shared blood circulation,
or a nursing mother can pass it to her baby in her breast milk.

Almost all people infected with HIV will develop AIDS if not treated. However, there is a small group of people who develop AIDS very slowly, or never at all. These patients are called long-term non-progressors.


*HTLV* The Human T Lymphotropic Virus*

*HTLV* – The Human T Lymphotropic Virus (type 1 and type 2), or HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 is fairly common in certain areas of the world like Japan, the Caribbean, Africa, parts of South America, eastern Siberia, and the
Pacific islands and less common (fewer than 1% of the population
infected) in other parts of the world. In rare instances, HTLV can develop into: Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL),

a form of cancer of the blood; HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM), an inflammation of the
nerves; or other associated diseases, like Strongyloidiasis.

*Human Papillomavirus (HPV)*  

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) – There are more than 70 types of Human
Papillomavirus (HPV). Some types produce warts — plantar warts on the
feet and common hand warts. About 40 types of HPV can infect the genital
area — the vulva, vagina, cervix, rectum, anus, penis, or scrotum. HPV
infection spreads from one person to another through sexual contact
involving the anus, mouth, or vagina. Certain types of HPV can lead
to precancerous changes in the cervix, cervical cancer, or anal cancer.
These are called high-risk types of HPV.

*Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV)*


– Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV) is a chronic (long-term) infection of the lymphatic system caused by three
different types of the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The bacteria spreads through sexual contact. The infection is not caused by the same bacteria that causes genital chlamydia.

Molluscum Contagiosum

Molluscum Contagiosum is a viral skin
infection that causes raised, pearl-like papules or nodules on the skin. 

Symptoms include: small, round bumps with indents - the bumps look like blisters
that have been pushed in at the center.
The virus can spread through contact with an infected person, and contaminated objects; such as towels, clothing, or toys.

The virus also spreads by sexual contact.
*Mononucleosis (‘Mono’)*


Mononucleosis is a viral infection causing
fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands, especially in the
neck. Mononucleosis, or ‘mono’, is often spread by saliva and close
contact. It is known as “the kissing disease,” and occurs most often in
those age 15 to 17. However, the infection may develop at any age.

*Mycoplasma Genitalium*


 Mycoplasma Genitalium is a bacterium that can
infect the urethra, cervix, throat, and anus. Mycoplasma genitalium is
often associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and pelvic inflammatory
disease (PID) in women, and is a common cause of non-gonococcal
urethritis in men. It has only recently been identified as a sexually
transmitted infection (STI). It is spread through vaginal, anal or oral
sex. It can also be transmitted by sex toys and hands and fingers if
they have been in contact with an infected person’s genitals or anus.

*Nongonococcal Urethritis (NGU) *


 NGU (Nongonococcal Urethritis) is an
infection of the urethra caused by pathogens (germs) other than
gonorrhea. Pathogens that can cause NGU include but are not limited
to: Chlamydia (most common), Herpes simplex virus (rare), & Mycoplasma genitalium.

*Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)*

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is an infection of the female
reproductive organs. It usually happens when a Sexually Transmitted
Disease (like chlamydia or gonorrhea) is left untreated and allowed to
spread from a woman’s vagina into her uterus, Fallopian tubes or ovaries.

*Pubic Lice/Crabs*

Pubic Lice are often called "crabs", probably because they look like
very tiny crabs. Infestation is found mostly in
teenagers and usually spreads during sexual activity.

Pubic lice are spread easily, especially through close
contact. A common symptom is intense itching in your genital area.


Scabies easily spread skin disease caused by a very
small species of mite. Scabies is spread by skin-to-skin contact with
another person who has scabies. Common symptoms include intensely itchy,
small bumps or rashes.


Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused
by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It has often been called “the great
imitator” because so many of the signs and symptoms
are indistinguishable from those of other diseases.. It can infect the
vagina, urethra, or penis, as well as the lips and mouth. Syphilis often
has no symptoms.

*Trichomoniasis (‘Trich’)*


 Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted
infection (STI) caused by the parasite Trichomonas
vaginalis. The transmission includes penis-to-vagina, intercourse, or
vulva-to-vulva contact. The parasite cannot survive in the mouth or rectum.


*Vaginitis (BV, Yeast, Etc.)*


 Vaginitis can affect women of all ages
and is extremely common. It can be caused by bacteria, yeasts, viruses,
and other parasites. Some sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can
also cause vaginitis, as can various chemicals found in bubble baths,
soaps, and perfumes. Environmental factors such as poor hygiene and
allergens may also cause this condition.



– The Zika virus is primarily transmitted by infected mosquitoes
but can also be transmitted sexually through bodily fluids. Zika usually
does not cause noticeable signs or symptoms, but it can adversely affect
pregnant women and their unborn children.


Risk per unprotected sexual activity with an infected person


                                                           Known risks                                         Possible



  • Herpes

  • HPV

  • Chlamydia

  • Gonorrhea

  • Herpes

  • Syphilis (1%)

  • Chlamydia (30–50%)

  • Crabs

  • Scabies

  • Gonorrhea (22%)

  • Hepatitis B

  • Herpes (0.07% for HSV-2)

  • HIV (0.05%)

  • HPV (high: around 40-50%)

  • Mycoplasma hominis infection

  • Mycoplasma genitalium

  • Syphilis

  • Trichomoniasis

  • Ureaplasma infection

  • Chlamydia (30–50%)

  • Crabs

  • Scabies

  • Gonorrhea (47%)

  • Hepatitis B (50–70%)

  • Herpes

  • HIV (0.1%)

  • HPV (high around 40-50%)

  • Mycoplasma hominis infection

  • Syphilis

  • Trichomoniasis

  • Ureaplasma infection

  • Chlamydia

  • Crabs

  • Scabies (40%)

  • Gonorrhea

  • Hepatitis B

  • Herpes

  • HIV (0.62%)

  • HPV

  • Syphilis (14%)

  • Chlamydia

  • Crabs

  • Scabies

  • Gonorrhea

  • Hepatitis B

  • Herpes

  • HIV (1.7%)

  • HPV

  • Syphilis (1.4%)

  • Amebiasis

  • Cryptosporidiosis (1%)

  • Giardiasis

  • Hepatitis A(1%)

  • Shigellosis (1%)

  • Throat gonorrhea

  • Throat chlamydia

  • HPV

  • Hepatitis C

  • HPV

  • Bacterial vaginosis

  • Gonorrhea

  • Hepatitis C

  • Hepatitis C

  • Hepatitis C

  • HPV (1%)

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